Peru is a beautiful country with a rich history, great cultural heritage, and astonishing architecture. Whether you’re examining the ancient ruins of Machu Picchu or taking a walk through the capital with its numerous modern buildings, you’ll notice that the architectural styles, while diverse, are very much in tune with each other and provide a comprehensive story of Peru’s history.
Every building can teach the curious observer about the geography of the place, the varied landscape, traditions, and diverse culture. Examining the architecture can prove to be invaluable to the modern designer, so let’s shed some light on the uniqueness of Peruvian buildings.
Every building is unique in its own right, and its appearance will mainly depend on the architect, client, and constructor. However, culture and architecture are deeply intertwined, and you’ll notice that different cultural periods have resulted in pieces of architecture specific to the said period. That’s why we have VIctorian architecture, Baroque, Romanesque, etc.
Peru’s architectural styles can be broadly divided into three categories:
To understand the modern architecture of Peru and predict where it’s headed, it’s important to examine these three styles closely.
When you think of Peruvian architecture, it’s not usually modern mansions and skyscrapers that pop to mind. It’s the ancient ruins, and it’s famous archaeological sites like Chavín de Huantar, Machu Picchu, La Huaca del Sol.
Pieces of ancient and Incan architecture can be found throughout Peru. They’re massive, have withstood the test of time, and have been studied by architects for centuries.
They’ve been of interest because of their unique properties. The majority of these buildings have been constructed from huge pieces of stone. They were perfectly cut to fit together like puzzles without the need for the mortar to “glue” them together.
What’s especially interesting is the fact that many of the famous buildings were constructed over gravel — this gave them the flexibility to withstand strong earthquakes that are very common in Peru.
After the colonization of Peru by Spain in the 16th century, the architecture changed drastically, at least on the surface. The new cities bore the typical architectural style of the European buildings of the time. Baroque and Renaissance buildings are easy enough to recognize and can still be found throughout Peru.
However, even though the European influence is evident at first glance, the white stucco walls and the intricate design of the wooden balconies cannot be missed, much of the Incan influence can still be seen.
Instead of destroying the Incan architecture, the colonials had built upon it. The grid streets of Cusco and open plazas hadn't changed much, and even on the “newer” buildings, a careful observer would notice the original Inca foundations.
Some of the more famous Peruvian buildings from the colonial times include Palacio de Torre Tagle and Casa de Osambela in Lima, or the Cathedral of Cusco.
The past few decades haven’t seen significant changes in architectural styles in rural areas. Many humble houses on the outskirts of big cities still use adobe bricks for construction, and roofs are still made of wood and even hand-made clay tiles.
It’s a different story in the urban environment. Cities like Lima have been drawing attention with their rising skylines and Art Nouveau homes.
After the construction of the Panama canal, Lima became prosperous and attracted migrants from all over the world. The surrounding villages and haciendas were quickly urbanized, and Lima became the city we know today.
As a growing economy, Peru quickly became urbanized, but much of its architecture still draws inspiration from historical buildings. Keeping the tradition alive and introducing modernism has allowed for quite a diverse architectural background that makes Peru a unique country — a true inspiration for designers and architects alike.
Many modern buildings in Peru draw inspiration from history but present an innovative use of space, materials, and design. Taking a look at some of Peru’s most inspirational modern designs will offer a completely new perspective on what it means to unite history and modernism.
What better building than a museum to show how well modernism and tradition can be united. Constructed in 2016, the Paracas site Museum is an archaeological museum that aims to conserve the cultural heritage of Peru.
The building itself blends perfectly into the landscape and the environment, with the reddish color of the walls complementing the surrounding desert and the red dunes.
The labyrinthine passages are a homage to the ancient Peruvian architecture, while the overall geometry of the building aims to be reminiscent of the famous Paracas textiles.
While the outside of the Museum seems harsh and unforgiving, the interior is entirely modern and dynamic.
The largest archaeological complex in Lima, the newly-renovated Pachacamac site Museum surrounds dozens of ancient architectural structures that are of utmost cultural importance.
The site was an important sanctuary with astonishing temples, places of worship, and religious ceremonies.
Drawing inspiration from the pre-Columbian architectural style, the Museum today features straight, linear geometry, paths surrounded by tall stone walls, and complies with the surrounding uneven topography.
Inside, the use of contemporary museology allows visitors to explore the ancient site while enjoying the artistic design of the museum building.
Plaza Cultural Norte is designed as a community cultural center in La Molina district of Lima. The center preserves the abandoned lots between the public parks and aims to blend in with the surrounding nature.
Located in the middle of a residential area, the community center invites visitors to reflect and take a break from everyday life.
The unique tectonic quality and design are quite marvelous, providing a timeless aesthetic. There’s an interior facade with a patio in the center and an enclosed facade towards the back that offers more privacy. As opposed to the gray concrete of the majority of the design, the back features colorful walls that reflect the culture of this dynamic neighborhood. The use of light and shadows is something to be experienced first-hand.
Located in the city of Piura, the UDEP campus was designed so that the University could accommodate the growing number of students.
The original aim of the building was not to create another architectural wonder but to provide the students with a comfortable learning space. Regardless, the architectural style is still inspirational and unique.
There’s plenty of open space that allows for natural lighting, while the dry forest located within the campus offers shade and protection from the harsh sun.
The campus is a collection of 11 separate buildings that are conveniently placed in a labyrinthine structure to allow for both natural lighting and natural air circulation.
Another university campus offers a glimpse into the architectural trends in Peru. Located in Lima, the UTEC Campus has a unique geometrical shape that makes it appear like a man-made cliff. The shape is intended to blend in with the surrounding topography and the overall environment.
The natural position of Lima was the inspiration for the project. With the city being located by the sea, it naturally has huge cliffs and plenty of green areas.
While the north side of the building is “cliff-like” and faces the fast-paced city, the south side has gardens and varying levels that slowly go down and integrate with the surrounding residential neighborhood.
The building design aims to unite the organic and natural with that which is man-made.
The PUCP Library in Lima is one of the most interesting pieces of architecture in all of Peru. It has a unique geometrical shape with plenty of acute angles and sharp turns, all of which aim to provide an abundance of natural light and a feeling of privacy.
It’s an imposing building that offers magnificent views of the city but manages to blend in with the environment as well, thanks to the red color of the concrete walls that are reminiscent of the red dunes in the desert.
If there’s one thing that modern Peruvian architecture shows, it’s that finding inspiration from nature and tradition is of utmost importance in architecture.
Designers and architects need to take into account the surroundings, the natural landscape, the topography, the climate. All these have an impact on the building in the real world. So, the design should ensure that the building makes use of the surroundings and doesn’t succumb to the natural elements.